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How is Neuroblastoma Clinically Presentating ?

Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer that is diagnosed at a median age of about 17 months. Tumors can arise anywhere along the sympathetic nervous system, with the majority occurring in the adrenal medulla. Primary tumors in the neck or upper chest can cause Horner's syndrome (ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis).
Tumors along the spinal column can expand through the intraforaminal spaces and cause cord compression, with resulting paralysis. Although many lower-stage neuroblastomas are encapsulated and can be surgically excised with little chance of complications, higher-stage tumors often infiltrate local organ structures, surround critical nerves and vessels such as the celiac axis, and are largely unresectable at the time of diagnosis.

Neuroblastomas typically metastasize to regional lymph nodes and to the bone marrow by means of the hematopoietic system. Tumor cells metastatic to marrow can infiltrate cortical bone. Neuroblastomas also can metastasize to the liver, most notably in patients with stage 4S tumors, in whom involvement can be extensive; however, transient and complete regression often occurs with no intervention other than supportive care.

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