- a.Biot respiration
- b.Apneustic breathing
- c.Cheyne-Stokes respiration
- d.Rapid and shallow breathing
- e.Kussmaul breathing
The answer is d.In emphysema, there is destruction of alveolar septa and reduced elastic recoil. This causes collapse of the small airways and prolongs the expiratory phase of respiration.
During the prolonged expiration, patients will “purse” their lips to avoid collapse of the small airways. The respiratory rate is increased by having a markedly shortened inspiratory interval.
Kussmaul respirations are slow and deep respirations to increase the tidal volume in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Biot respirations are seen in patients with increased intracranial pressure. These are irregular, unpredictable periods of apnea alternating with periods of noisy hyperventilation. Cheynes-Stokes respirationis a rhythmic, gradually changing pattern of apnea and hyperpnea that is cardiac or neurologic in origin. Apneustic breathing is characterized by a long period of inspiration or gasping with almost no expiratory phase.