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Mechanisms Linked to Sodium intake in Hypertension

Mechanisms Linked to Increases in Blood Pressure and the Therapeutic Effects of Healthful Dietary Patterns, Sodium Reduction, and Weight Loss.

Sodium intake initiates an autoregulatory sequence that leads to increased intravascular fluid volume and cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood pressure. The elevation in blood pressure results in a phenomenon called pressure natriuresis, in which increased renal perfusion pressure leads to increased excretion of fluid and sodium. In essential hypertension, however, sodium excretion is impaired. It is hypothesized that in most cases essential hypertension is a genetic disorder involving many individual genes, each of which influences the body's handling of sodium to varying degrees and becomes expressed in the context of an unhealthful dietary environment, particularly one characterized by excessive intake of salt.

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