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Kidney Stones part 1

There are different types of kidney stones, classified by the substances that form them. The different types include:

1.Calcium stones:
Approximately 80% of all kidney stones are calcium stones. They are composed of calcium in combination with either phosphate or oxalate. These occur when there are excess levels of calcium circulating in the blood.

2.Uric acid stones:
Approximately 10% of all kidney stones are uric acid stones. These occur when excess amounts of uric acid are present in the blood. Approximately 50% of people with this type of kidney stone also develop gout – a painful form of arthritis caused by solid deposits of uric acid in the joints.

3.Struvite stones:
Approximately 5% of all kidney stones are struvite stones. They are composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and tend to occur in people who have repeated urinary tract infections.

4.Cystine stones:
Approximately 2% of all kidney stones are cystine stones. Cystine is a type of amino acid. People with cystine stones usually have an abnormality with the way their body processes amino acids in the diet.


There are many potential causes of kidney stone formation. In general they are the result of a super concentration of chemicals in the urine that results in crystals being formed. This may be brought on by one or more of the following:

* a family genetic predisposition to form stones;
* an excess of calcium or certain other minerals in the diet (sometimes due to
local geographic water or soil conditions);
* intake of excess uric acid, certain medications, Vitamin C, or Vitamin D;
* a diet of fruits and vegetables high in oxalate (a by product of metabolism);
* long term dehydration (possibly due to inadequate intake of fluids) and its
resulting concentration of urine;
* urinary infection;
* living in an area where high temperatures cause sweating and loss of fluids; or
* possibly, just leading a sedentary (low physical activity) lifestyle.

The main function of the kidneys is to eliminate byproducts of metabolism.This means they are constantly collecting the major ingredients for kidney stones - including calcium, oxalate, and uric acid.These minerals are kept in suspension until they are passed out of the body. Too much metabolic byproducts in insufficient fluid (urine) makes a person prone to kidney stone formation.

The over concentration of metabolic byproducts in the urine can cause these minerals to move out of suspension and crystallize. These small crystals that precipitate out of the super saturated urine will usually pass on out through the urinary tract, but they may begin to clump together. Any existing crystal makes it easier for other crystals to form. If they stay in the kidney very long, the crystals gradually grow larger and larger until they become a kidney stone so large that it cannot pass through the urinary tract.

Many underlying metabolic disorders may be the root cause of excessive calcium and oxalate forming stones in the kidney. Often doctors overlook the basic cause because of the attention of the sufferer being on the immediate cause of the pain leading the physician to be primarily concerned with the extraction or dissolution of the kidney stone causing the problem. The potential root causes include, but are not limited to the following:
1. A re-absorption of the calcium from the bones back into the blood system
which the kidneys then filter out (resorptive hypercalciuria or
2. The intestines absorb too much calcium from the diet (absorptive
3. The kidneys filter out calcium from the blood but do not allow the reaborption
of the calcium back into the blood as it should while it is still in the
tubule of the kidney (renal hypercalciuria).
4. Several forms of bowel disease (ulcurative colitis, regional enteritis, etc.)
which can contribute to high levels of urinary oxalate excretion.
5. Excess dietary intake of oxalate from foods such as green leafy vegatables.
(See list of high oxalate foods.)
6. High levels of uric acid in the urine can act as a breeding ground for calcium
oxalate stones.
7. Or, in a reverse manner, the lack of certain stone formation inhibitors
normally found in the urine may not be present in sufficient quantities and
thereby allow the formation of stones. One such indigredient is citrate (which
this author is deficient in); another is magnesium.
8. Infection stones are indicators of the underlying infection in the urinary

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